Child Development 0 – 19 Years

Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth – 19 years. 0 – 3 Months Physical development Many babies who are under three months old cry a lot. From birth, a baby’s reflexes will allow them to turn their heads and to suckle when you touch their cheek. Their sucking and grasping reflexes will develop. They can flex and extend their fingers, arms and legs. By about 4 weeks their eyes can follow a moving light, although it may only be for a few seconds. By 2-3 months, they can watch and follow a moving face. By 6 weeks their eyes can move together most of the time.

When lying on their stomach they will start to lift their heads and chest and support the upper body with their arms. By 2 months, they will enthusiastically kick their legs and will push down on them when their feet are placed on a firm surface. Communication and Intellectual development A baby this young will watch faces intently and will begin to imitate movements and facial expressions. They will start to recognize familiar objects and people at a distance. They will start Smiling and cooing in response to others, and will start to babble and even imitate some sounds.

By about 8 weeks they will listen to what you say, then make noises back as they ‘talk’ to you. Babies will turn their heads toward the direction of sound. Babies at this age will have different cries for different needs. Social, emotional and behavioural development Between 4 – 8 weeks, babies watches you face when you talk to them. They often begin to smile at a familiar face by around 4 to 6 weeks, and will look at you carefully from around the same time. By 3 months, they can laugh out loud. 3 Months – 1 year Physical development

Between 3 to 6 months baby will start rolling over back to front, they might start sitting up with support and possibly unsupported. Passing toys from one hand to the other and banging them together will create great amusement to baby. They will start following objects with her eyes and judging accurately how near and far away they are. From 6 – 9 months they will start sitting up without being supported, they will start standing up, cruise furniture and perhaps even walk. Some infants never crawl, however, by 9 months, many babies find crawling to be an exciting way to get around.

Their hand eye coordination will develop even more. Develop full colour vision and distance vision matures. By now babies will hear and see as well as an adult. They can reach with one hand and transfer objects from one and to another. Between 9 – 12 months babies can crawls forwards on their bellies, pull themself up to stand, walk holding on to furniture, and may even walk two or three steps without support. Reaches sitting position without assistance and can get from sitting to crawling. They will take objects out of containers and poke with their index finger.

They can use the pincer grasp and will let objects go voluntarily. By now they have triple their birth weight. Communication and Intellectual development A baby between 3 – 6 months will watch faces closely, responds to their own name. Baby will smiles at the sound of a familiar voice and starts to babble and imitate some sounds. They will respond to music and turn their heads toward sound. They will vocalise excitement and pleasure. Baby will start making gurgling sounds when left alone and playing with you. Between 6 – 9 months babies begin to develop a better awareness of the world.

They will develop the ability to realize that objects still exist, despite the fact that they are out of sight. They will be able to finds partially hidden objects. Babies at this age will explore with their hands and mouth. By 12 months babies will explores objects in many different ways (shaking, banging, throwing, and dropping) and will finds hidden objects easily. They can looks at the correct picture when an image is named they will also imitate gestures. Babies will begin to use objects correctly. Start to recognise common words like milk, cup, shoe, and respond to simple requests.

Social, emotional and behavioural development Babies between 3 – 6 months will begin to display a social smile, they will enjoys social play and might get upset when playing stops. They will express themselves and communicate more with their face and body. Baby will be drawn to their own image in the mirror. Might start to learn how to comfort themselves. Baby will respond to other people’s expressions of emotion. Between 6 – 9 months babies might develop what is called “stranger anxiety”. This period is not permanent, and usually fades over time. They will seek attention and show strong feelings about likes and dislikes.

Baby begins to recognize and identify their own feelings and that they are different, they will also begin to realize that they are a separate person. By the end of year 1 baby might still appear shy or anxious with strangers and may cry when the caregiver leaves. They enjoy imitation and will repeat sounds or gestures, engage you in a conversation and copy simple hand games like ‘clap hands’ or ‘bye bye’. Show specific preferences for certain people and toys. They test parental responses to their behaviour. Baby will enjoy finger-feeding themselves. They will start to extend arm or leg to help when being dressed.

Peek-a-boo’ and ‘hiding’ are favourite games because they play out in a simple way the comings and goings of people that baby has come to recognize and depend upon. 1 – 2 Years Physical Development Baby will walk without assistance, and might even walk backwards. Baby would be able to use their feet to push themself along on a ride-on. They can move from sitting to standing by using their hands to push themselves up, and can pick up toys while standing. They can push and pull objects, paint and scribble. Baby will love climbing on and off furniture and may begin to run.

Start feeding themselves and drink from a cup without needing help. They have mastered the pincer grip and can now pick up small objects. By the end of year 2 they can take off an article of clothing. Baby can run in a direction with accuracy and stop when they need to. Most toddlers can walk down stairs while holding onto the banister. They can push buttons and turn knobs. Communication and Intellectual development They will recognize themselves in the mirror. They will find objects when hidden. Toddlers will understand and responds properly to words and commands.

They can distinguish between “you” and “me”. May even begin to match similar objects. They will say more words every month by 12 months they can say about 1-3 words, 18 months about 10-50 words, 24 months about 300 words they will also use some simple questions. Toddlers at this age will start putting two words together in a basic sentence. They can point to body parts and pictures in books. They use objects for their intended purpose. Because of their developing imagination, they have trouble knowing what is real and what is pretend. They’ll request information by saying, ‘What’s that? . They will enhance words with gestures and tone of voice. Social, emotional and behavioural development Toddlers will become more communicative and expressive with face and body and imitate some movements and facial expressions. They develop a sense of security. They will be curious and energetic but he depends on an adult’s presence for reassurance. Toddlers at this age enjoy repetitive games. They show a interest in other children but usually just plays alongside them. They want to do its all themselves and may experience unbearable frustration if they can’t master a task.

Their ability to feed themselves is slowly improving and they are likely to be choosey about what they eat. 2 – 3 Years Physical Development Toddlers between 2 – 3 years are very active, they can run forward, jump in place with one foot, kick a ball, bend over and climb over things with ease. Toddlers can help dress and undress themselves and hold a pencil in a writing position. They will start making up-and-down, side-to-side, and circular lines with pencil or crayon. They can turns book pages one at a time, and enjoy building towers. They will start to screw and unscrews jar lids, nuts, and bolts and turn rotating handles.

They can walk up and down stairs, alternating feet (one foot per stair step). Communication and Intellectual development Toddlers will start to observe and imitate more complex actions, and follow a two- or three-part command. They are typically egocentric, or self-centred, in their thinking. Start to use two or three word sentences, and will understand differences in meanings. They start to plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people, and can make mechanical toys work. Some toddlers can complete puzzles with three or four pieces, and will start to understand the concept of “two”.

They can recognize and identify almost all common objects and pictures. By the end of 3 years they would Use pronouns and some plurals, and strangers would be able to understand most of their words. Social, emotional and behavioural development They will continue to explore the world around them. They start to show affection for others, and will express affection more openly. Toddlers will be able to play by himself or herself, but might start to show challenging behaviour. They will imitate adults and playmates. They can take turns in games and understands the concept of “mine” and “his/hers”.

Toddlers at this age will express a wide range of emotions and may object to major changes in routine. A 2-3 year old cannot yet understand reason or control their impulses. 3 – 7 Years Physical Development By the end of year 4 they can walk backwards and forwards unselfconsciously; turn and stop well. They can jump off low steps or objects, but find it hard to jump over objects. They will run around obstacles and balance on one foot unsteadily. Toddlers will love to Push, pull, steer toys, throwing and catching a ball. They will begin to ride trikes. They will play actively, but tire suddenly.

They can dress and undress themselves. 4 – 5 year olds can Jumps forwards many times, do somersaults, skip unevenly and walk up and down stairs. Might be able to stand on one foot for five seconds, and will judge well when placing feet on climbing structures. They will enjoy jumping on a small trampoline. They have increased endurance in play. They will start to draw crosses, circles and even a person. Between 5 – 7 years the large muscles in their arms and legs are more developed than small muscles – children can bounce a ball and run, but it is difficult to do both at the same time.

They can walk backward quickly; skip and run with agility and speed. They will start to incorporate motor skills into games. They would be able to jump over objects, hop well, climb well, jump down several steps; jump rope and coordinate movements for swimming or bike riding. They have high energy levels in play and rarely show signs of fatigue. Their coordination for catching and throwing will continue to increase. They also have an improved reaction time in response. Fine motor skill development will continue to improve, they will be able to use a pencil to make letters words, and sentences.

Children would be able draw people, houses and trees in more detail. They will be able to do a series of motions in a row in order to do a complicated motor activity. They would be able to balance on one foot for 10 seconds or more. Communication and Intellectual development Between 3 – 4 years children have pretty much mastered some basic rules of grammar use many sentences that have more than four words. The average 3 ? year old knows more than 1200 words. They also understands simple questions, and ask a lot of “why” and “how” questions. They will be able to tell people their own name and age.

Children at this age will start to attend to activities for longer periods of time, they learn by observing and listening. Children will shows awareness of past and present and follow a series of two to four directions. They can point to and names colours, grasp the concept of counting they may even know a few numbers. They understand order and process. Also they start to play around with words a lot more and engage in fantasy play. By the time they are 5 they will be able to uses sentences that give lots of detail and tell stories that stick to a topic and is longer. They will also start to answer simple questions about a story.

They can count 10 or more objects and correctly name at least four or more colours. They improve on their understanding of time. They might know a few nursery rhymes which they can say, repeat or sing. Between 5 – 7 years there is a rapid development of mental skills, children would have greater ability to describe experiences and talk about thoughts and feelings. They will begin to think logically, and will have greater concern for others. Their comprehension and use of language becomes more sophisticated. They will share opinions in clear speech and engage in conversations.

Children have a receptive vocabulary of approximately 20,000 words. Start to understand ‘left’ and ‘right’. Social, emotional and behavioural development By the end of year 5 children would develops friendships and interact with other children. They are learning to understand about the feelings and needs of others, and their behaviour shows that they can feel sympathy for others and can share their toys and take turns. Start to engage in pretend play and will often develop favourite games like “mummies and daddies” and “superman”. They start to compares themselves to others.

Children have a good understanding of right and wrong. They will become more independent and can usually separate from parents/carers without distress. They become aware of their gender. Sometimes children would be demanding, and other times they will be eagerly cooperative. By the time children are 7 they have an even stronger sense of right and wrong. They have an increased ability to engage in competition. They begin to have awareness of the future and grow a greater understanding about one’s place in the world. Start to have feelings about how they look and how they are growing.

Children in this age group are aware of being a girl or a boy and often prefer to play with children of their sex. 7 – 9 years Physical Development Children will start to gain weight faster, and grow an average of 2. 5 inches per year. In these years many children place great emphasis on the development of their own physical ability. Being able to do handstands, hit the ball, ride fast, etc, often carries considerable status within the peer group. Generally speaking their energy levels are high and they can do a fast majority of physical activities. They will become more graceful with their movements and abilities.

By the end of year 9 they will be able to dress and groom themselves completely. They have the ability to use tools. Communication and Intellectual development Children at this age are often very excited by, and genuinely interested in, the outside world. They can absorb information with enthusiasm. They have beginning skills in reading, writing and maths and the capacity to express relatively complex ideas. Sadly they will begin to understand that Father Christmas is not real. They might be able to tell the time and will have some understanding of money. They can start to plan ahead and know left hand rom right. Children will now know the different tenses (past, now and future) and would be able to use correct tenses in sentences. They can tell jokes and riddles. At about 8 children would be confident using the telephone. Many will begin to enjoy reading a book on their own. Social, emotional and behavioural development There will be a gradual development of children’s social skills. Children have a great desire to fit in and be accepted by their peer group. Children want to play with children of the same sex and sometimes stereotype members of the opposite sex.

They will have increased confidence and greater responsibility. They will like to win at games but will not yet be able to lose cheerfully. They are starting at 8-9 years to understand another person’s view of things. They will start to like team games. They become increasingly independent of their parents, but still need their comfort and security. They are able to resolve conflicts verbally and know when to seek adult help. 9 – 12 years Physical Development They will continue to grow taller and bigger. Girls are generally speaking 2 years ahead of boys in physical maturity.

Girls will grow buds of breasts at ten or eleven, their hips will take shape and they may begin to menstruate at eleven or twelve. Children have an increase in body strength and hand dexterity. They have improved coordination and reaction time. Some boys may experience masturbation and nocturnal emissions. The remainder of their adult teeth will develop. Adult type tools can be used, such as saws and hammers. Children can construct simple structures and sew basic garments. Their handwriting becomes more fluid, automatic and less of an effort. Their writing speed also increases. Communication and Intellectual development

They have an increase in abstract thinking- children would be able to think about what could happen rather than what did happen. Children can fantasize and speculate. Children at this age are more likely to question your rules and values rather than follow them and things may often seem unfair to them. They will become more project and goal oriented and might develop special interests in collections or hobbies. They will enjoy games with more complex rules. They are learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do. Their comprehension and use of language becomes more sophisticated.

They often share their opinions. They may pick up on words that peers use. Children could begin to learn new language without understanding the meaning. Likes to write stories, letters, reads well and enjoys using the telephone. Social, emotional and behavioural development Children at this age will like being a member of a club and will enjoy rituals, rules, secrets, codes, and made-up languages. They may form more complex friendships and might prefer spending more time with friends than with parents. By eleven children is much more interested in, and affected by, the norms of their friends.

They start to have better control over anger. They might experience more peer pressure. Children will become more interested in the opposite gender. They are able to resolve social problems like fights with friends and siblings. They also have the ability to understand others people’s point of view. 12 – 16 Years Physical Development Adolescence is a time of rapid growth in height and weight. The changes in children’s bodies at this age are rapid and can be dramatic. Boys grow body hair, their voices deepen, and their testicles increase in size. They experience a massive boost of testosterone.

Boy’s testes begin to enlarge, their muscles will fill out and strength increases dramatically. Girls may grow body hair and breasts and start menstruating. Many will mature radically in their facial features. Acne may appear as oil glands become more active. Their appetite and need for sleep will increase. Their sexual desires and fantasies also increase. Communication and Intellectual development Adolescents are able to think more abstractly. They are better able to express feelings through talking. They have a very strong sense of right and wrong.

Between 13 and 16 children’s ways of thinking about themselves, others, and the world shift to a much more adult level. Arguing and reasoning skills improve. They learn to use deductive reasoning and make educated guesses. They will be able to construct hypothetical solutions to a problem and evaluate which is best. Their focus on the future develops and they learn to recognize that current actions can have an effect on the future. They will start to set personal goals. Adolescent’s decision-making skills improve; they begin to independently differentiate right from wrong and develop a conscience.

They also learn to distinguish fact from opinion. Social, emotional and behavioural development Adolescents have increased concern about body image, looks, and clothes. They are self-absorbed. They are more interested in and influenced by their peer group. They become less affectionate, sometimes moody, rude or short-tempered. They may experiment with risky behaviours and adult roles. Conflict is common as they begin to reject adult values and ideas. Close friendships develop, particularly for girls. Some children might lose self-confidence or self-esteem during this time. 16 – 19 Years Physical Development 5% of children have reached their adult height. Many of the major physical changes have occurred. There is advanced growth of secondary sex characteristics such as facial and body hair in boys, and breasts in girls. They will continue brain development until late adolescence. The likelihood of sexual desire and perhaps activity is increased. Communication and Intellectual development At this age they might have an increased concern for the future and how to integrate knowledge and decision making. They have well defined work habits and greater capacity for setting goals. Their organizational skills improve.

They tend to be self-regulated and self-absorbed. Teens are better able to solve problems, think about their future, appreciate opinions of others and understand the long-term effects of their decisions. However, teens tend to use these skills inconsistently; as a result, they sometimes do things without thinking first. Social, emotional and behavioural development They are moving towards independence and have a firmer sense of self. They have developed sense of humour. They have the ability to compromise and make important decisions. Teens may experiment in risk taking behaviour.

Relationships with parents can either be very friendly or can deteriorate. The behaviour of teens is very varied; they may enjoy activities with the opposite sex or they may completely avoid the opposite sex. Teenagers may appear angry, impulsive, lonely, confused, self-centred, stubborn and moody. They may struggle with conflicting feelings. Teens want control over more aspects of their life. Use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is more common now than before. They may have strong sexual urges, and many become sexually active. Teens become more aware of their sexual orientation (homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual).