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The dynamics of the contemporary society have created significant implications on police and public administration. At one point, the police administration was merely a political structure controlled by politicians based on the implications of the public administration policies they passed. This control once again shifted to the hands of the police. However, this was disadvantageous on their part because of their detachment from the community. Nonetheless, the shifts in the society have influenced police administration to inculcate novel ways of performing their communal duties. The modern era has introduced a structure comprising the amalgamation of police administration and public administration. It has facilitated an effectual relationship between the police and the community resulting into an efficient way of fulfilling the needs of the community.

Does the Direction of the Present Policing Era Satisfy the Communities’ Needs Better?

Indeed, the direction taken in this present era of policing is better capable of satisfying the needs of the communities than the past eras. This is because present policing focuses on taking a community approach in problem solving (Kelling & Moore, 1988). Furthermore, since the police organization is a public organization, present policing also concentrates on changing certain public administration policies. Nevertheless, the present policing period is a by-product of the implications arising from past eras. Such implications were usually detrimental to the efficacy of public and police administration leading to an insufficient and less effective way of gratifying the needs of the society. Moreover, the dynamism of the community, in terms of trends and shifts, has necessitated further development of policies in public and police administration. Based on this, it is evident that the present policing period deviates significantly from past eras.

Regardless of the problems arising in past eras, it is evident that present policing is effective over other eras. The disadvantages arising from the past policing periods translated into advantages for the present policing era. By inculcating Community Problem Solving as a policy area, there was the introduction of novel ways of ensuring professionalism within the police force, which also facilitated a close relationship with the community by the police (Peak & Glensor, 2012). Present policing also introduced foot patrolling regardless of its contentions in the past eras based on its connection to communal intimacy. This strategy also introduced problem solving and order maintenance tasks to the police. Furthermore, an introduction of maintenance of urban life standard further broadened the functions of the police. Indeed, by integrating policies such as community policing and intelligence-led policing and problem-oriented policing, this present policing strategy has amplified the effectiveness of the police in terms of serving the community better.

Eras of Policing

Based on the different policing strategies employed in police administration, it is useful to categorize the use of these strategies in terms of policing eras. These policing eras outline the disparate strategies involved in administering the police. As such, there are three main eras in terms of policing strategies aimed at managing the police. These epochs comprise the Political Era, the Reform Era and the Community Problem Solving Era.

The Political Era

The Political era occurred between the 1840s and the 1900s. It represented an epoch in which police administration possessed significant associations to politics. At this point, politics played a considerable role in governing the police. Indeed, various groups sought to govern the police in order to gratify or pursue their personal interests (Cordner & Scarborough, 2007). As such, there was a struggle between such factions based on the sole objective of administering the police. Certain aspects described the political era in terms of police administration. Foremost, the police lacked sufficient resources to support them in their duties. As a result, politicians provided resources for them.

Advantages Nonetheless, the political era possessed particular advantages over other eras. Foremost, police enjoyed and experienced a considerable array of dominant support from the politicians. Secondly, based on this, the police were also able to offer beneficial services to their communities. They helped immigrants settle and find work, and they ran soup lines. They helped the homeless by finding for them shelter. The police interacted with the community, and this enabled them to have a better understanding of what the people experienced as well as the challenges they were facing. They were able to respond to the problems that the community was facing immediately. Kelling and Moore note that “demand for police services was received, interpreted, and responded to at the precinct and street levels” (Kelling & Moore, 1988, p.3).

Disadvantages However, this strategy presented considerable weaknesses for the police. Foremost, there was increased corruption within the police. This is because of their association with politicians and the community as well as a decentralized organizational framework incapable of overseeing the mandate of police. Consequently, there was increased discrimination on the part of the police. This is because of the closeness the police ahead with neighborhoods, which made them unfamiliar with new comers or strangers from varied ethnic groups. Lastly, the police experienced aggravated instances of disorganization because of an insufficient centralized structure that led to ineffective organizational control (Kelling & Moore, 1988).

The Reform Era

The next era, the Reform Era, was a reformation of the corrupt police organization. For the reformers, politics was the main cause of corruption and detrimental governance among the police (Kelling & Moore, 1988). As such, at this time, the police ended their associations with local and dominant politicians in order to create an autonomous institution dedicated to solve crime justifiably.

Advantages. The main advantage arising from this comprised effectiveness in management and solving crime. This is because the primary function of the police narrowed down to apprehension of criminals. Consequently, the concentration on controlling crime encouraged impartiality among the police because of their severed relationship with the politicians and the community itself. Additionally, this form of policing allowed the police leaders to support a vision they all supported regardless of their distinct backgrounds. This created a considerable degree of comprehension among the police.

Disadvantages Nonetheless, the strategy also possessed significant disadvantages. Foremost, the police were unable to gratify their expectations concerning their ability to manage crime and restrict it from increasing. Secondly, communities began experiencing considerable degrees of fear. Regardless of low crime rates, people avoided public places for unknown reasons because of insufficient order maintenance from the police. Consequently, past discriminatory acts against minority groups such as African Americans made the minorities hostile to the police regardless of unbiased policing and increase in fair police allocation structures. Furthermore, protest movements such as antiwar protests and civil rights movements further challenged the police forcing them to use tactics that seemed questionable at that time. Fifth, there was also insufficient law enforcement in communities. The strategy was also incapable of professionalizing low-ranking officers (Kelling & Moore, 1988; Peak, Gaines & Glensor, 2010).

The Community Problem-Solving Era

Community problem solving integrates various aspects of public administration and applies them in police administration. This is understandable since the police force is also a business organization. Therefore, it requires an effective management of its resources as well as a highly decentralized structure for governance. Furthermore, by relying exponentially on the community, community problem solving within the police force employs a new shift towards apprehending criminals. Even though intimacy with the community led to discrimination of unfamiliar people during past eras, present policing allows the community to forward their grievances directly to the police in case of assistance (Peak & Glensor, 2012). This way, there is exercise of professionalism with a sense of hospitality.

Advantage. By focusing on problem-solving initiatives, the police provide suitable and effective alternatives towards mitigating crimes and other disputes within the society. This deviates from the norms expressed in past policing periods. The police have developed different policing methods such as community policing, which has ensured that they interact with the communities they are serving, while still maintaining professionalism in their work. For instance, law enforcement in Alberta, Canada incorporates problem-solving strategies for the respective Albertan community. For instance, the police have employed the use of foot patrols as well as community stations in order to increase communication between the community and the police.

Disadvantage. Since Community Problem Solving emphasizes on a decentralized organization structure, decision-making within the police organization has led to a decrease in the levels of authority required for police administration. This has led to the reduction of middle management staff leading to retrenchment of middle managers. Additionally, the trend of technology in conducting police operations such as information gathering has also facilitated retrenchment of more personnel engaged in collecting data.

Are We Heading in the Right Direction in this Era of Policing?

Indeed, the present era of policing is the right direction to take. This is because present policing creates a possibility of using public administration within the police organization. Additionally, community problem solving also integrates public administration within the police force. In definition, public administration involves the effective management of public resources. Based on this, this type of policing adheres to integrating and incorporating relevant frameworks that assist police organizations in the management of resources. For instance, Alberta’s law enforcement framework focuses on the equitable allocation of police service units in the Alberta community for effective service delivery (Government of Alberta, 2010). By incorporating such a framework, it is evident that the present era of policing presents more advantages towards satisfying the community rather than other policing eras that did not integrate participative management in terms of public and police administration.

Public administration is bureaucratic, and this can have several advantages. Bureaucratic organizations are able to handle and control multitudes more effectively, and this is especially useful when dealing with riots and mass demonstrations. Such organizations have the necessary resources to deal with complex tasks. They are especially important in enhancing equality by reducing discrimination. This is because they have to follow the written rules and regulations when dealing with situations. Changes in the society over the years have ensured that civil rules are non-discriminatory. In addition, the organizations offer expert advice, as they have concentrate on specialization of knowledge. This enables them to gain more insight towards particular issues, making them more efficient in their operation (Seidman, 2012).

Police administration also embraces a bureaucratic approach. It implies the procedures, art and science of oversight, management and ethical leadership for the police organization. The notion of police administration is actually a trend that further shapes the nature of the police organization. According to Cetron & Davies, “police officers will be living longer, healthier lives. This will allow them to remain on the job after retirement…Many will work in technical, support and administrative functions” (Cetron & Davies, 2008, p.5). Furthermore, the need for the provision of credentials and qualifications by the police, enjoyment of more benefits such as retirement pensions and insurance coverage further illustrate the rise and success of police administration in the modern community.

The present era of law enforcement also allows for the integration of community-based policing strategies in the duties of the officers. Such strategies allow the police to work efficiently with the community unlike in past eras. For instance, the Reform Era did not allow police to engage in closeness with the community. According to Kelling and Moore (1988, p.5-6), “Activities that drew the police into solving other kinds of community problems and relied on other kinds of responses were identified as social work and became an object of derision”. This implies that the police took criminal apprehension to an extent that saw them discard community problem solving. This is because of the problems that arose from the intimacy with the community especially at the time of the Political era of policing. However, because of the innovations of the present forms of law enforcement, officers possess the capability of serving the community effectively and in a professional manner, while concurrently solving crime via intelligence-led or problem-solving techniques. This is shown by Kelling and Moore (1988, p.13), when they state that, “we believe that this concept can be used not only to describe the different styles of policing in the past and the present, but also to sharpen the understanding of police policymakers of the future”.

In conclusion, community problem solving is a novel form of police administration within the community. By integrating essential factors such as foot patrols, information sharing, resource allocation and public relations, police have amassed the capability to exercise objectivity and intimacy with the community. Furthermore, present policing has deviated from the norms exercised during the Political and Reform periods. It has turned the negatives of both periods into its strong points. As such, it is evident that community problem solving is indeed beneficial for both the police and the community.

References

Cetron, J. M., & Owen, D. (2008). 55 trends now shaping the future of policing. The Proteus Trends Series, 1(1), 1-197.

Cordner, G. W., & Scarborough, K. E. (2007). Police administration. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Pub. Co.

Government of Alberta. (2010). Law enforcement framework. Retrieved from

Kelling, L. G., & Moore, H. M. (1988). The evolving strategy of policing. Perspectives on Policing, (4), 1-16. Retrieved from

Peak, K. J., & Glensor, R. W. (2012). Community policing and problem solving: Strategies and practices. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Peak, K. J., Gaines, L. K., & Glensor, R. W. (2010). Police supervision and management: In an era of community policing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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Reflective Paper

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1. Following the introductory week, what are your overall impressions about the various aspects of health care? For example, the health care models used or how different issues can affect health care provision.

There are many different issues, which affect the health care industry and people’s health in general. There exist several disparities in health care in rural and urban settings. People have different perceptions concerning healthcare, especially among the indigenous communities. The wide and scarce areas of central Australia contrast deeply with the urban areas. Resources are scarce in these areas, and there are few professionals, who have to handle many cases. Few aboriginal people get the chance to receive the quality healthcare that they would get were they in a different setting. On the other hand, the scarcity professionals in the field and the different cultures and lifestyles of the people give the professionals a chance to acquire more skills and knowledge while dealing with diverse cases.

Because of the remoteness of the regions, the indigenous people have learnt different ways of dealing with their health problems. Professionals working in these regions get a chance to combine the knowledge of conventional medicine by learning from the people. Level of community involvement and the support systems in place affect people’s health. The indigenous people have a different perception of health compared to the people in urban areas of the country. They link their health and wellbeing, to their families and communities. People in the urban areas tend to be more individualistic, and they consider their health issues to be a private and personal matter. Ultimately, the different levels of thinking among the indigenous cultures mean that the government and health care professionals will apply different policies when dealing with health care in these communities. People in the urban areas have different support systems. They have more health care facilities available, and they can access different healthcare professionals more easily.

2. Describe four characteristics/professional attributes that are regarded as essential characteristics of an allied health practitioner. Choose two of these and illustrate how you would demonstrate these in practice.

Allied health practitioners need to have good communication skills. They work with people from different cultures, and they do not speak the same language. Having good communication skills will ensure that the practitioners are able to understand the needs of the clients, and to solve their health problems. In addition to knowing how to communicate verbally, good communication skills also involve listening, cultural competence, and non-verbal communication. They need to have good interpersonal skills. This will enable them to know how to interact well with people. Interpersonal skills are crucial because they help the practitioner to build and maintain a healthy working relationship with patients and other people.

The practitioners need to know how to use their time and resources well (Thomas & Clark, 2007). They work in geographic isolation, among a population that is sparsely distributed. Many of them cite lack of support from management as one of the greatest challenge to their work. They need to have good stress management. The practitioners work in different environments, which can be particularly challenging because they work in professional isolation. They handle a huge backload of cases, and they do not have enough staff to help them manage all the work (Bent 1999). They need to know how to manage their stress well so that they do their work with efficiency. I would demonstrate interpersonal skills by developing an interest in the people. This will involve seeking to learn more about their culture, preferences, and beliefs. I will use the time and resources that I have well by developing a schedule, which will help me dedicate enough time in a specific region. By doing this, I will be able to do more work in one area before moving on to the next region.

3. Imagine that you have just been diagnosed with a chronic condition such as diabetes, asthma or epilepsy. How would you feel? Would one type of chronic condition be better or worse than any other? Why?

I would be devastated and shocked at the news. I think that it would take some time to absorb and accept the news, and it is highly likely that I would choose to seek a second opinion. I think that I would begin reflecting on the diagnosis, and looking at the alternatives I have I would ask the doctor many questions regarding the condition, and this would include questions such as what could have caused the condition and the possibilities of a cure, even if I know that there is no cure. I would then aim to find more about the condition from sources other than my healthcare provider, including any possible alternative treatments available. Some chronic conditions may seem somehow better than others are because of the level of awareness and the support systems available. For instance, some people may prefer getting diabetes because they know that they can manage it using proper diet and medications. Others may prefer getting a different form of chronic condition because they may consider it relatively painless.

However, I do not think that one form of chronic condition is better than another is. Some chronic conditions may seem worse, especially considering that the person may not be near any medical facilities. Chronic conditions require people to adjust their lifestyles, and many people are not comfortable doing so (Jones & Creedy, 2012). For instance, they may require a person to exercise more, eat differently, or engage in different activities. A person with asthma cannot participate in many sports, which a person with diabetes can. A person with diabetes needs to change his eating habits. I do not think that any chronic condition is better or worse than the other is because every chronic condition has its own challenges.

4. For the purposes of the access audit, you were to imagine you had mobility issues and were asked to identify the challenges you might experience in your home. Now think about this scenario more widely. How would the mobility issues impact you in a functional sense (self-care activities, work, university, leisure pursuits) as well as your participation in wider society? How would you feel about this?

Having mobility problems would mean that I need assistance in almost all areas of my life. This would include activities that many people consider as private, including dressing and bathing. It would limit my freedom since I would not be able to do whatever I needed to do at the appropriate time. I would not be able to go to the places I needed to, and this would limit the number of festivities and functions I attend. This would ultimately decrease any leisure activities I used to engage in before the problem started. This means that I would have to follow a defined schedule, and I cannot do anything spontaneous. I would have to work according to another person’s schedule, especially if I am not in a position to hire someone to take care of me (Scherer, 2005).

Having mobility issues would slow me down, especially in work and school. I would not be able to rush to different classes, and would effectively have to leave early so that I arrive on time. It would limit the work that I choose to do since I cannot do some forms of work without the freedom to move freely. I would feel depressed about this because I would not be in a position to do anything about it. I would consider the extra burden I am placing on those around me. They would have to change the way they do things because of my condition, in addition to making other provisions to accommodate me. This would make me feel guilty and stressed, and I would find a way to ensure that I am not a burden to them.

5. Select two (2) issues that were raised in the lecture surrounding the emotional and social impact of living with a disability and explain why they are of particular interest to you.

Several issues were raised including the issue of a person with disability being able to participate in the wider society. This was of a particular interest to me because of several reasons. The person with the disability feels that he is not in a position to contribute anything meaningful or to do anything that will affect the society significantly. A person with a disability can change a society and contribute to its well-being if he has the resources needed to do so. The society has the responsibility of providing resources to ensure that people with disabilities do not feel left out and that they are in a position to make a positive difference.

Another issue that was of interest was the adaptation process. People tend to think that the process is sequential. They think that the person with the disability will move from one stage to the other as he or she is learning how to adapt. However, this is not usually the case as people often to relapse. A person may feel good and have a positive outlook for the future at one time, while, at another time, the person may experience mood swings and have depressive symptoms. A person does not know how his life will be because of the disability he has (Morrison et al., 2012). He convinces himself that things will work out okay for him, and at that time, the person has hope for the future. This interested me because many people do not seem to realize the emotional turmoil that a person goes through once she learns that she is disabled. Because of this, people tend to classify some disabled people as moody. Understanding the emotional impact will help others to have a better understanding of people with disability.

6. Have subsequent lectures and activities changed your perceptions about health care provision compared with those you had prior to starting this course? If so, in what ways have they changed, and if not can you explain why you think they have not changed.

Yes, my perceptions about health care provision have changed, especially in relation to the allied practitioners. Through the lectures, I have gained a greater insight concerning the role and importance of practitioners, and I have come to have a greater appreciation and understanding of the work that they do. The practitioners work in difficult circumstances and under challenging and harsh environments. Providing healthcare to indigenous cultures living in rural and remote areas is not easy. They sacrifice a lot to ensure that they provide health care. The management of different government agencies and other institutions need to increase the support given to the allied practitioners to enable them conduct their work well. The management system should mobilize resources to ensure that the practitioners are not understaffed and that they have enough resources to do their work. The lectures have enabled me to know more concerning disparities in healthcare, especially in different regions of the country.

The health of the people in the remote and rural areas contrasts significantly with the health of people in the metropolitan areas. The socioeconomic differences in the different areas and the geographic distribution of the people account for this difference. The lower socioeconomic status of the people in the rural and remote areas contributes to their poor health and low life expectancy. The people in these areas face many challenges in their quest to find health care. I have realized that it is necessary for people to take a bold step towards initiating efforts that will make it easier for people in the remote and rural regions to access health care. This includes taking different measures such as encouraging more people to train as allied practitioners, and encouraging more people to work in the rural and remote areas.

References

Bent, A. (1999). Allied health in central Australia: Challenges and rewards in remote area practice. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 45, 203-212

Higgs, J., Ajjawi, R., McAllister, L., & Trede, F. (2008). Communicating in health sciences. Australia: Oxford University Press

Jones, K., & Creedy, D. (2012). Health and human behavior. Australia: Oxford University Press

Livneh, H., & Antonak, F. R. (2005). Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability: A primer for counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83 (1), 12-20

Morrison, V., Bennett, P., Butow, P., Mullan, B., & White, K. (2012). Introduction to health psychology in Australia. Pearson Australia

Scherer, J. M. (2005). Living in the state of stuck: How assistive technology impact the lives of people with disabilities. Brookline, MA: Brookline Books

Smith, D. J. (2007). Australia’s rural and remote health: A social justice perspective. Pearson Education Australia

Taylor, S., Foster, M., & Fleming, J. (2007). Health care practice and policy in Australia: Policy, context and innovations. Oxford University Press Australia & New Zealand

Thomas, Y., & Clark, M. (2007). The aptitudes of allied health professionals working in remote communities. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14 (5), 216-220

World Health Organization (2002). Towards a common language for functioning, disability and health: ICF

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