Religion 150 – Chapter 4

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Religious Studies

India

Question 1

Knowledge enables one to learn about their path to liberation. It is a means that enable one achieve an end of spiritual realization. It enables one realize their genuine self and the nature of reality.

Question 2

Perception, comparison, inference and verbal testimony constitute the four sources of knowledge. Perception takes place when our senses encounter an object. Nyaya School has comparison as the next ground for valid knowledge. The Inference knowledge assumes some information, which it draws a conclusion from. Verbal testimony gives the fourth knowledge ground in Nyaya School.

Question 3

Sound, sight, touch, smell, taste and another sixth sense referred to as the mind, are the processes engaged.

Question 4

In the exceptional perception, Nyaya asserts three kinds. The first one takes place when one perceives the universal and the particular simultaneously. The second takes place when the sensory associations are made through perceptions. The final kind of exceptional perception is yoga.

Question 5

This is a kind of reasoning referred to as tarka. They form the primary hypothesis, which is the major reason in support of this claim. There is an assertion on the major premise, theory behind the claim and conclusion.

Question 6

According to Nyaya School, the relationship between cause and effect is very important. What exists in a material way is the first cause. This is because an effect is produced out of this. The second cause is relational or non-inheriting. The efficiency or the builders themselves become the third cause. Asatkaryauada refers to the theory of the “prior non-being of the effect”.

Question 7

Negation gives a foundation for metaphysiscs and paradigm for Nyaya logic. The term absence is used for Sanskrit abhaua.

Question 8

Channeling its manifestation into a one point or path can be one way it can be done. This enables the fixing and reducing of the thoughts traffic. Releasing the hold of our intellect through different methods of concentration are also taught here.

Question 9

Illusion is how the world is ordinarily perceived. It is felt that we are mostly under the spell of maga or illusion.

Question 10

Nyaya School rejects the proposed original assumption by the advaitins of validity. In this assumption, the criterion of a belief’s validity is the correspondence found between the validity and the reality.

Question 11

Avaita Vedanta gives a contrast to Nyaya School where he assumes six sources of pramanas or valid knowledge. There were only three sources of cognition assumed by Sankara. These were inference, perception and verbal testimony.

Question 12

According to Ramauja, inference, verbal confirmation and perception are the major sources of knowledge. The testimony given in the Vedas about God is what is referred to as the verbal confirmation.

Question 13

He undertook this by insisting on the foundational aspect of intuition. He claimed that we know ourselves through the intuitive knowledge.

Question 14

Critical thinking founded on solid empirical evidence is greatly stressed in Buddhism. It also advises that he critical thinking be used on the test of experience.

Question 15

Sarvastivadins believed in dharmas, a real being of constituents elements. The Sauntrantika and the Vaibhashika were formed by the division of the Sarvastivadin School. The two newly formed schools strongly believed in the connection between an object and the conscious. Sautranika School believed that there is nothing real in an objective sense. On the other hand, Vaibhashika School portrays the substantival realists. In his belief, all phenomena are a reality, which can be made into different substances.

Question 16

He used the meaning of sunya to reality and knowledge. Madhyamika Karikas offered a destructive in his work. He felt that nothing that can be talked about reality. This is whether negative or positive, both or neither.

Question 17

Nothing is found outside the consciousness in yogacara. The reality becomes the absolute consciousness.

Question 18

Inference and perception were the two grounds for cognition in dignaga.

Question 19

His criticism was that a system of logic could possibly show real truths.

Question 20

The right knowledge will lead to the right action according to Dharmakirtin.

Question 21

The yogacara metaphysics in madhyamika system are embodied here.

China

Question 22

Chuang Tzu was skeptic about matters concerning knowledge. He stressed that there was an underlying relativity in what a person can do or cannot do.

Question 23

An example of the love for learning is Confucius. Mencius is a reference of a person’s ability to think the constitution of the human essence.

Question 24

When names fail to correspond with the realities they are designating, then there is an occurrence of a fallacy.

Question 25

Kung-sunlung intended to demonstrate that a white horse was not a horse in a logical manner. This was in a white horse discourse. His main aim was to get the difference between the abstract and the concrete. He also wanted to get the difference between the particular and the universal.

Question 26

According to Chan Buddhism, genuine freedom is the state of no thoughts or no mind. This is the freedom from thoughts and feelings.

Question 27

Wang responded to Chu His’s rationalism by emphasizing on the intuition. Chu Hsi assumed that there was a difference between principle and mind. He also assumed another difference between li and chi. However, Wang did not. Chu His also insisted that things must first be investigated before arriving at the understanding of their principle. According to Wang, principle understanding meant understanding the mind since mind is principle.

Question 28

According to Chang, ideas and theories are the glue that makes a society stay together. This was in respect to the culture knowledge.

Japan

Question 29

The Japanese language is conducts less to abstract formal expression. This brings about the absence of an abstract and formalized epistemology in Japanese thought.

Question 30

Discipline, insight and meditation are referred to as higher knowledge.

Question 31

Exhausting the intellect so that the mind is let into the intutitive insight is the main aim of Koan. A Koan is a riddle used to get enlighten.

Question 32

In the Zen tradition, Dogen raised the limits of tradition.

Question 33

In vishida’s view of knowledge, his acting intuition has an epistemological and metaphysical importance. This acting intuition means action based upon intuiton.

Question 34

Basho of nothingness and basho of being are the two meanings in basho.

Question 35

The knowledge of particular is both possible and necessary for the universals knowledge according to Nishida. Some amount of classification is involved in the prediction of things. This was in accordance to Aristotle.