Research Design in Counseling

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Research Design in Counseling

CHAPTER 12

Question 2. Before the conduct of an experiment, operationalising the independent variable is of the essence to the researcher. The first process is the determination of the conditions of the variables; the second process is the reflection on the constructs selected as the causes of the research question. The third factor is the identification of the limiting factors in the varied conditions provided. Limiting factors identified are handled through the provision of remedies for ensuring arrival at desired results, which are free from material error. The fourth and last factor is establishing the prominent differences in the conditions provided.

Question 4. Threats posed to such an assumption are potency of an independent variable to contain several conditions. Restriction of the independent variable may be restricted to categories, which indicates the restriction by the researcher. In addition, the conditions of the independent variable are restricted or determined by the researcher.CHAPTER 13

2. A dependent variable is selected as a measure of the construct, which is the effect construct. A specific error is the measure used in research to identify the unintended element in the measurement, which was not forecasted or intended for by the researcher. It provides the researcher with the ability to evaluate the variations provided by his intended results and the results arrived at using a specific instrument of measure. In social studies, it is used to measure the level of social desirability of phenomena in measure or study.

3. Questionnaires are commonly used to evaluate and stratify the sample provided in relation to the data availed and as it relates to the various characteristics of the data. Such characteristics provided the required information in the study in that each sample is identified in relation the characteristics. CHAPTER 14

Questions 1. Population issues usually refer to the complexities associated with the selection of participants and the generalization of results based on the data collected from the participants. Such issues include the applicability of treatment studies to other clients in a mental medical facility. In addition, this may include the treatment for the various individuals in the group of participants, the population size of the participants to be used. This is an evidence of the impediment brought about by the population issues, which have the potency to change the efficacy of the two treatment options provided.

Questions 2. Random selection involves the selection of an unknown individual sample from the selected population at study. Random assignment, on the other hand, is defined as the selection of observations, which are subsequently assigned to the samples provided. Hence, the observations provided are identifiable with various samples in the population. Assignment in at times considered as unrealistic and

Questions 4. The definition of a population begins with deliberation on its size to ensure adequate sampling. In addition, this provides adequate or minimal information as related to the phenomena at hand. In addition, the population would also be defined in terms of the requirements of the various careers.

CHAPTER 15

Questions 1. The terms race, ethnicity and culture interchangeably because of the three elements are dependent variables. These three terms give rise to aspects of bias in the cause of collection of data and evaluation of the same. The three elements are identical in some aspect as they relate to the characteristics of a sample such as an individual with the aim of providing differentiation between the elements.

Questions 2. Distal and proximal explanations for behavior in multi-cultural researches are aimed at explaining the human behavior in a given sample or population. Distal explanations usually rely on the descriptive nature of the factors under distal classification. On the other hand, proximal explanations give definition to observable facts, which influence the characterization or explanation of behavior of a sample in a population. They usually assume a psychological nature.

Questions 3. Issues such as the attainment of the differences in terms of their cognitive abilities are problematic. In addition, the researcher should provide medical proof of such inferences of superiority of a race over another.

CHAPTER 16

Questions 1. Cultural biases assume either support or resentment for specific cultural beliefs assumed by a cultural grouping. Hence, a researcher might assume either positions resulting in a distorted view of the real issues at hand.

Questions 2. Differences and similarities between cultural beliefs assumed by samples in a population could influence the information collected by the researcher and in the process of making inferences.

Questions 3. A bad attitude towards the various cultural beliefs and values upheld by individuals in a population could result in the provision of unreliable information or views in a research study.

Questions 4. Bias could be reduced through various means identified as:

a. Assumption of a neutral view or position in conduct of research

b. Refraining from judgment and issue of individual views as they relate to the various social views or cultural beliefs of the sample population.

c. Selection of a large population for sampling provided a variety in terms of samples resulting in an undetermined view by the researcher.

Questions 5. Demand characteristics in research may include changes in the society in terms of change in cultural values. Secondly, the need to provide information, which is not prone to, changes such as the presence of errors and bias.

Questions 6. Worldviews are based on individual knowledge and perceptions about various issues. Some assume unbending views about the world resulting in distorted information provided in the research. In addition, information provided might be unreliable of biased as it is based on individual’s views.

Questions 7. Participants’ need for self-presentation or “saving face” could result in the provision of unreliable information, which is biased and distorted. Hence, it could result in an inaccurate inference.