Research Design in Counseling
1. Most of the information that is used to describe the information is obtained from primary sources. Primary sources will include material that was investigated by the researcher. This material comprises of genuine findings that were examined and organized through a systematic framework. In the case of the weeklong girl’s camp, the information for the program description was retrieved from similar previous workshop presenters. The participants in previous girl’s workshops also provided valuable information. Other minor sources of information include the journals from the participants in the previous surveys. This particular source of information is valuable as it shows the genuine opinion of the beneficiaries of such exercises. Lastly, other sources such as surveys and register information serve to describe the program and enhance the comprehension of the mission and goals.
What are the life-skills induction program’s intentions and how is the program put into action to address the goals? What will the life-skills induction program entail? What is the duration of the program? What is the number of participants in the weeklong exercise? What type and level of impact do the exercise planners expect? Are these impacts measurable and when can they be measured? Is the program considering any long-term benefits? Has any official drafted a funding proposal to the sponsors? If so, are there any unique demands by the program sponsors such as including a segment of their preferred population? Does the program manager have a set benchmark of expectations for the evaluation?
3. The structure of the evaluation questions will be transformed into questions that trigger the development of new ideas. This is because at the conceptualization point, ideas on the best approach to take are being procured and this means the questions will be more open, flexible and indirect.
4. The major stakeholders in the program include the ministry of Gender officials, who are predominantly interested in the development of the girl child. The USAID partners who founded the program are the second major stakeholders. Silent stakeholders include the Girl guides Association, various elementary schools and other corporate sponsors.
5. The significance of outlining data collection steps and time lines is to create an organized and chronological system that will become important when evaluating the level of program completion.
6. The data collection strategy to be used will involve the complete enumeration approach because the participants in the survey will be less and therefore, the whole population can be measured.
7. The advantages of using participation observation are that the researcher gets first hand information that is current and authentic. Another advantage is that the observer can see feelings. The disadvantage of relying on such sources is that the participants may provide biased and inaccurate information that will compromise the accuracy of the whole program. When participants realize that they are being observed, they tend to alter their usual behavior to conform to what they believe is acceptable or required.
8. Triangulation refers to the cross-examination process in the event where two methods were applied in a study. Triangulating data sources is the process of checking the validity or the constancy of two data sources in their use within a study.
9. Primary data analysis starts immediately when the data collection process begins. It is a continuous process and involves regular revision to update one’s material. It is significant in that it guides the researcher in developing relevant objectives that are supported with valid evidence from data collection.
10. Secondary data analysis is the examination using data gathered by a different researcher other than the consumer of the material. General sources of secondary data for social sciences projects include surveys, censuses and official records. Primary data analysis refers to the use of material gathered by the researcher conducting the study to make deductions and conclusions.
11. Naturally, stakeholders should be involved in the writing of evaluation recommendations because of the following reasons. One, stakeholders are in a better position to point out the issues in the project and how to best solve them. Second, stakeholders will probably be the implementers of these recommendations and their presence at the formulation stage is important in producing relevant and achievable solutions. Lastly, they were the major contributors toward the success of the project and to acknowledge their contribution is important.
12. An evaluation trial is a mock replication of the actual evaluation process without actually implementing it. Evaluation trials are important in that they enable the program team members to point out loopholes and shortcomings before the actual program is rolled out.
13. Research evaluation aims at proving an argument while a program evaluation aims at improving the quality and relevance of a program. Evaluation also adds value to a Program while research attempts to be value-free and indifferent.